• Cécile Girardin

    You can follow news from the Ecosystems Lab on this blog: http://oxfordecosystems.weebly.com/blog

  • West African ForestsTerrestrial LiDARSouthern Temperate ForestsLowland Amazon ForestGlobal investigationsEuropean Forests WythamECOFOREast African ForestsAsian ForestsAndes to Amazon transect

    Hi GEM team,

    Here is a nice introduction on the work we are carrying out on El Niño by Laura Cole, a journalist from Geographical magazine: http://geographical.co.uk/places/forests/item/2149-research-blog-the-tropics-and-el-nino

    Laura will be following our work on El Niño for a few months. If you have stories from your fieldwork, or findings that you would like Laura to showcase, don't hesitate to contact me.

    Abrazos,
    Cécile

  • West African ForestsSouthern Temperate ForestsLowland Amazon ForestEuropean Forests WythamEast African ForestsAsian ForestsAndes to Amazon transect

    Hi GEM team,
    Here is a message from Miles Silman and his team, who are getting ready for a big re-census in the Andes: "There is an assumption that I wanted to check on about the strapping-tape dendrometers. Has anyone ever checked for stretch? For example, putting one on a steel or concrete lamp post, etc.? If so, what did they find?"

  • Brigitte Nyirambangutse

    News of a very exciting new article in Biogeosciences Discussions lead by Brigitte Nyirambangutse, from the GEM plots in Nyungwe National Park in south-western Rwanda, 'Carbon stocks and dynamics at different successional stages in an Afromontane tropical forest'. Brigitte is keen to have comments from as wide an audience as possible, so please disseminate widely!
    Congratulations Brigitte!
    PDF is attached and here is the link for interactive discussion (available until 1st Nov 2016): http://www.biogeosciences-discuss.net/bg-2016-353/

    File_extension_pdf
  • West African ForestsTerrestrial LiDARSouthern Temperate ForestsLowland Amazon ForestGlobal investigationsEuropean Forests WythamECOFOREast African ForestsAsian ForestsAndes to Amazon transect

    Here is the very cool 3D T-lidar scan of the canopy walkway in Wytham Woods, produced by Kim Calders of NPL/UCL:
    https://youtu.be/RS6q3HMEJK8?vq=hd1080

  • West African ForestsTerrestrial LiDARSouthern Temperate ForestsLowland Amazon ForestGlobal investigationsEuropean Forests WythamECOFOREast African ForestsAsian ForestsAndes to Amazon transect

    Message from Erika Berenguer:

    Our paper on the cost-effectiveness of field assessments of carbon stocks in human-modified tropical forests has just come out in Plos One:
    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0133139

    This is a very novel approach and, as far as we know, the first of its kind.

    Please disseminate it widely,
    Erika

  • Sam MooreToby Marthews

    Hi guys,

    I am analizing partitioning respiration using the formula showed in the last version of GEM manual. I have negative values for some of the components, so I was wondering if there is another step in the calculation.

    Hope you can help me with this.

    Thanks

    Jhon

  • Sam Moore

    Hi Sam,

    I downloaded Hemisfer and I thik it worked very well. Only few questions about it:
    - I followed these steps: Load picture(s)/Analize picture(s) and then it was created a text file with the results. I did not find a manual, so I was wondering if I am right.
    - In the results, there are several options: Miller, LI-COR, Lang, Norman and Campbell, Thimonier et al. and also there are somw corrections. My question is which one should I choose?

    Thanks for your help,

    Jhon

  • Christopher DoughtySam MooreToby MarthewsLeaf Area Index

    Hi all,

    I am trying to analize my hemispherical pictures, I have the CAN eye software and followed the manual steps but I did not get good results. I think there is one step missing. Please anyone who could help me with that.

    Jhon

    • Thumb_sam_0693
      About 2 years ago

      Hi Jhon,

      Sorry for the delay in responding to you - the reason for this is that we are currently undergoing a review of how we analyse hemispherical photos. Essentially, for all the reasons you mention above regarding 'optical centre', 'angular resolution' etc...and moreover the calibration process that is now required in CAN-EYE, we are moving to a different, freely downloadable software analysis program called Hemisfer (http://www.wsl.ch/dienstleistungen/produkte/software/hemisfer/download_EN) - the free version is fully functional (as well as far more intuitive than CAN-EYE), the only limitation being it's resolution limits. We are in the process of purchasing a number of licenses which give us access to the limit-free resolution version and can share this with you in time. In the meantime, may I suggest that you follow the link above and try running some of your photos through the free version to get accustomed to the software? For peace of mind, you can even compare some of the results from Hemisfer with CAN-EYE - we have also done this and there is good agreement (even with the free version). Let me know how you get on.

      All best from Oxford,
      Sam and the GEM team

    • Thumb_photo0133
      About 2 years ago

      Is there any source where I can find this project function? or do I have to use any default settings? I am using a Nikon Coolpix 4500 and a Nikon Fisheye FC-E8. The version of CAN_EYE is V6313

    • Thumb_photo0133
      About 2 years ago

      Hi again,

      I followed all the steps: Open CAN-EYE, Hemispherical Images/RGB Images/upward and I had to stop in the next step which asks to specify a project function. I have read something about it and is related to camera+lens caracteristics. There are also other required caracteristics that I do not know how to fill up: Image size, optical centre, Sub-sampling, angular resolution, fapar computation. So how should I set them up? How do I interpretate the results?.

      Thanks

      Jhon

  • West African ForestsEast African ForestsAsian ForestsAndes to Amazon transectLowland Amazon ForestSouthern Temperate ForestsGlobal investigationsEuropean Forests Wytham

    Here's a nice, very convenient and cheap method for getting a standardized index of decomposition across the GEM sites: http://www.decolab.org/tbi/

    As a plus, it is already been performed at a wide range of contrasting sites worldwide.

    Note they have almost NO sites in the tropics. A nice easy project for GEM??

  • SAFE subproject

    Dear GEM team around the world

    Photos of last campaign in Benta and Danum Valley, Sabah-Borneo. A new model of litter trap easy to make, deadwood respiration collar and ingrowth core mesh.
    Malaysian monitoring intensive carbon team lead by Terhi Riuta, Rostin Tien, Nani Suhaini and Rohit Kailoh and the wonderful guys from Danum Valley staff at the moment they have been measuring in two new hectare plots.
    My special thanks to the managers Alex Karolus, Johnny Larenus, Byan Gray and Unding Jami.
    Well done Beisit and Fernando in Belize and all the best in Cusco with Cloud project.

    Abrazos GEM team.

    Walter

  • SAFE subproject

    Dear GEM team around the world

    Photos of last campaign in Benta and Danum Valley, Sabah-Borneo. A new model of litter trap easy to make, deadwood respiration collar and ingrowth core mesh.
    Malaysian monitoring intensive carbon team lead by Terhi Riuta, Rostin Tien, Nani Suhaini and Rohit Kailoh and the wonderful guys from Danum Valley staff at the moment they have been measuring in two new hectare plots.
    My special thanks to the managers Alex Karolus, Johnny Larenus, Byan Gray and Unding Jami.
    Well done Beisit and Fernando in Belize and all the best in Cusco with Cloud project.

    Abrazos GEM team.

    Walter

    Thumb_dsc01842 Thumb_dsc01876 Thumb_dsc01885 Thumb_dsc01915 Thumb_dsc01949 Thumb_dsc01966 Thumb_dsc01969 Thumb_dsc02009 Thumb_dsc02133 Thumb_dsc02177 Thumb_dsc02218 Thumb_dsc02227 Thumb_dsc02300 Thumb_dsc02306 Thumb_dsc02315 Thumb_dsc02317 Thumb_dsc02351 Thumb_dsc02383 Thumb_dsc02389 Thumb_dsc02396 Thumb_dsc02409 Thumb_dsc02417 Thumb_dsc02445 Thumb_dsc02450 Thumb_dsc02453 Thumb_dsc02471 Thumb_dsc02477 Thumb_dsc02519 Thumb_dsc02539 Thumb_dsc02541 Thumb_dsc02556 Thumb_dsc02562 Thumb_dsc02565 Thumb_dsc02590 Thumb_dsc02591 Thumb_dsc02615 Thumb_dsc02627 Thumb_img_4269 Thumb_img_4272 Thumb_img_4285 Thumb_img_6901 Thumb_img_6909 Thumb_img_6910 Thumb_img_6921 Thumb_img_6943 Thumb_img_6950 Thumb_img_7069 Thumb_img_7072 Thumb_img_7127 Thumb_img_7158 Thumb_img_7193 Thumb_img_7254
  • Toby MarthewsCécile Girardin

    Hi all,

    I have some problems for analyzing hemyspherical pictures. I was wondering if anyone can help me. Please

  • Percival ChoBelizean forestsImpacts of natural and antropogenic disturbances of Belizean forests carbon cycle.

    Here some photos of our campaign to establish permanent plots in Belize last month (May 2015).
    Fernando Hancco and I shared the task of setting up intensive Carbon monitoring plots, installing ingrowth cores experiment for fine roots, litterfall traps, total and component soil CO2 efflux, stem respiration, coarse woody debris survey, and others, in accordance with the RAINFOR- GEM Field Manual V3.0.

    Currently, the Belize team is still setting up four plots, two in Las Cuevas Forest Research- Chiquibul Forest and two in Hill Bank.

    Our gratitude to Percival Cho, Lewis Usher, Shanelly Carrillo and Rudy Balan for their warm welcome, cordiality and motivation.

    Thumb_100_0143 Thumb_img_20150515_143638 Thumb_img_20150516_154656 Thumb_img_20150516_150903 Thumb_img_20150508_084647 Thumb_wp_20150517_015 Thumb_wp_20150517_006 Thumb_wp_20150516_048 Thumb_wp_20150519_002 Thumb_wp_20150517_022 Thumb_wp_20150516_044 Thumb_wp_20150516_002 Thumb_wp_20150515_016 Thumb_wp_20150514_004 Thumb_wp_20150514_001 Thumb_wp_20150513_002 Thumb_wp_20150513_001 Thumb_wp_20150507_052 Thumb_wp_20150507_037 Thumb_wp_20150507_011 Thumb_wp_20150507_005 Thumb_wp_20150507_004 Thumb_wp_20150506_021 Thumb_wp_20150506_016 Thumb_20150518_120028_richtone_hdr_ Thumb_20150518_120013_richtone_hdr_ Thumb_20150518_114109_richtone_hdr_ Thumb_20150518_113034 Thumb_20150518_112922 Thumb_img_20150508_084647 Thumb_wp_20150519_002 Thumb_wp_20150517_022 Thumb_wp_20150517_015 Thumb_wp_20150517_006 Thumb_wp_20150516_048 Thumb_wp_20150516_044 Thumb_wp_20150516_002 Thumb_wp_20150515_016 Thumb_wp_20150514_004 Thumb_wp_20150514_001 Thumb_wp_20150513_002 Thumb_wp_20150513_001 Thumb_wp_20150507_052 Thumb_wp_20150507_037 Thumb_wp_20150507_011 Thumb_wp_20150507_005 Thumb_wp_20150507_004 Thumb_wp_20150506_021 Thumb_wp_20150506_016 Thumb_20150518_120028_richtone_hdr_ Thumb_20150518_120013_richtone_hdr_ Thumb_20150518_114109_richtone_hdr_ Thumb_20150518_113034 Thumb_20150518_112922
    • Thumb_a
      About 2 years ago

      They are:
      Percival Cho,
      Shanelly Carrillo,
      Lewis Usher and
      Rudy Balan

    • Thumb_malhi_pic_forest
      About 2 years ago

      Great work. Nice to see the pictures. Can someone remind me of the names of the Belizean researchers? (I know Lewis...)

  • ECOFOR intensive carbon sites
    • Thumb_cg_profile_photo
      Over 2 years ago

      Fantastic! congratulations! Good report of the work you're doing. Abrazos xx Cc

  • Stem respiration

    Dear all, in Brazil it has been really challenging to find Fix-All with no odor to attach collars to stems. However, there are a number of silicon options. Has anyone faced the same issue elsewhere? Is anyone using silicon to attach the collars to the trees? Any suggestions or recommendations are much welcomed.

    • Thumb_photo0133
      About 2 years ago

      Hi, we used non Fix-all silicon used for glass in a couple of plots in Manaos, Brazil and some plots of Peru. This silicon worked very well filling the leaks between the collar and the tree stem. The only problem is that with the time the silicon loses his capability of attaching. We tried with several kinds of silicons (for wood, plastic, glass, and have the same results. I do not know if Fix-all one mantain the tube attached all the time (as it is showed by GEM manual) but what I suggest is using something for extra-attaching like square pieces of inner tube plus strapping band and springs (as used by dendrometers). This extra thing does not affect the measurement and give you long-term attaching. Hope this helps.

    • Thumb_cg_profile_photo
      Over 2 years ago

      Hi Erika, Have you found a solution? Would you like us to send you some Soudal fix all sealant? x Cc

  • West African ForestsEast African ForestsAsian ForestsAndes to Amazon transectLowland Amazon ForestSouthern Temperate ForestsGlobal investigations

    GEM has a paper in Nature!! Led by Chris Doughty, we show how forests in the Amazon lowlands responded to the 2010 drought. This shows the power of the the GEM approach to providing mechanistic insights into how forests work. The paper can be downloaded here...
    http://tinyurl.com/oznd7wy

  • Soil depth profileVianet MihindouFidèle EVOUNA ONDODr. Stephen Adu-BreduAnkasa National ParkMondah Forest ReserveLopé National ParkBobiriIvindo National ParkKogyae Strict Wildlife ReserveWest African Forests

    A few snaps from our recent soil sampling campaigns in Ghana and Gabon late last year (2014). Nutrient samples were collected from cores and bulk density samples from soil pits at regular depth intervals down to 2 meters. All samples are now either in transit, or in the Leeds University soil labs for analysis, following the Rainfor standard protocols which will enable pan-tropical comparisons. Detailed soil profiles were also taken from each soil pit, of which we had 2 at each of our 3 field sites in Ghana and 3 field sites in Gabon. A huge thank you to both the Ghana and Gabon field teams for all the hard work!

    Thumb_sam_3198 Thumb_sam_3215 Thumb_sam_3228 Thumb_sam_3249 Thumb_sam_3336 Thumb_sam_3375 Thumb_sam_3432 Thumb_sam_3433 Thumb_sam_3442 Thumb_sam_3001 Thumb_sam_3093 Thumb_sam_3097 Thumb_sam_3113 Thumb_sam_3124 Thumb_sam_3159 Thumb_sam_3160 Thumb_sam_3162
  • West African ForestsTerrestrial LiDARSouthern Temperate ForestsLowland Amazon ForestGlobal investigationsEuropean Forests WythamECOFOREast African ForestsAsian ForestsAndes to Amazon transect

    Calling all GEM users:
    I hope your year has started on a good note?
    I would just like to let you know that the GEM website is likely to get a lot of hits in the next few weeks, as the first GEM Nature paper is coming out soon, with good press coverage (Congratulations, Doughty et al.!!!).
    This is a good time to update your profiles, make sure you have a photo on your avatar, post latest pictures and comments: use the GEM website to promote yourself and your work! Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any trouble logging in. Login is at the top right of your screen. Bonne chance, Cécile

  • West African ForestsEast African ForestsAsian ForestsAndes to Amazon transectLowland Amazon ForestSouthern Temperate ForestsGlobal investigationsEuropean Forests Wytham

    We have just published in Ecosystems a description of the carbon cycle of the core 1 ha intensive plot in Wytham Woods.This is work emerging from the DPhil thesis of Katie Fenn. The work shows that the plot takes up 22 tonnes of carbon every year through photosynthesis, but less than 10% of this ends up as wood growth. Much more productivity ends up in the leaf canopy and even in fine roots. This is one of the few full descriptions anywhere of carbon cycling in mixed-age temperate broadleaf woodland (most work is on either plantations or coniferous forests), and forms part of our Global Ecosystems Monitoring network GEM. We also show how well our bottom-up carbon cycle measures track the eddy covariance measurements of total canopy CO2 exchange, giving increased confidence in both.

    Congratulations to Katie for persisting with this! It is a wonderful contribution to both our global studies, and to the multi-discplinary and multi-faceted studies at Wytham Woods.

    I have blogged about the paper here
    http://www.yadvindermalhi.org/blog/the-ecosystem-carbon-cycle-of-a-forest-plot-in-wytham-woods

    and the paper can be accessed here:
    http://www.yadvindermalhi.org/uploads/1/8/7/6/18767612/fenn_wytham_carbon_cycle_ecosystems_2015.pdf

  • Dendrometer bandsCensusJos BarlowECOFOR

    A few photos of ECOFOR's field sites and team. The project is now up and running. More from us to come soon.

    Cheers,
    Erika

    Thumb_b260_t1_xarope Thumb_140821_xarope__bega__amanda_e_galo Thumb_140822_stemless_palm Thumb_b260_t1_cipoz%c3%a3o1 Thumb_b260_t1_cipoz%c3%a3o2 Thumb_b260_the_lonely_brazil_nut_tree
  • West African ForestsEast African ForestsAsian ForestsAndes to Amazon transectLowland Amazon ForestSouthern Temperate ForestsGlobal investigations

    Revised versions of the RAINFOR Field Code Sheets for Trees and Lianas are available to download from the RAINFOR website in EN, ES, PT and FR.

    http://www.rainfor.org/en/manuals

    Please can you start using these updated versions when travelling to the field for tree and liana re-measurements? Many thanks.

    Kind regards,

    Joana Ricardo
    Project Administrator (Part-time: Wed - Fri - 9am-5pm)
    RAINFOR, AMAZONICA and TFORCES Research Projects

  • Soil respiration

    Hi all,

    I am experiencing logistical difficulties downloading the soil respiration data from the EGM. Therefore, I wonder if more people are just using flux data from the spreadsheets and not downloading the curves?

    Best,
    Erika

    • Thumb_erika
      Almost 3 years ago

      Brill! Thanks a lot, Cécile!

    • Thumb_cg_profile_photo
      Almost 3 years ago

      That's right, we are just using flux data from the spreadsheets. You can find the code we use to convert from raw EGM data to flux data on github:
      https://github.com/OxfordEcosystemsLab/GEMcarbon.R It is called "EGM_raw_to_flux_option1" (or option 2, depending on your experimental layout - see RAINFOR-GEM manual for descriptions of options).
      Let me know if you need help, Cécile

  • Toby MarthewsCarbon dynamics of representative ecosystems in nortwestern Peruvian AmazonSoil respiration

    Master Toby,

    The EGM-4 we are using for assessing soil respiration have showed an strange behaviour during this week. In normal conditions (we assume that) the SRC chamber sounds during the pre-measurement calibration but suddenly it stopped to do that. I am not sure if that is OK, apparently the measurements look good. What do you think about it?

    Another question is regarding partitioning experiment. The manual indicates that it is necessary to measure the initial emission: putting 10cm-long-tubes on the places where it will be put the 9 tubes, moving the litter in each tube content as they correspond and then measuring the soil respiration in each one. The point what should I do if I do not have that initial measurement. Can I do the procedure beside the already-installed tubes and consider them as initial measurements?

    Hope you can help me with this.

    Best,

    • Thumb_photo0133
      Over 2 years ago

      Happy new year to you!

    • Thumb_photo0133
      Over 2 years ago

      Hear the fan is a good option, we did not realize it, but we will take this into account.
      No, I do not have access to another one. In fact we have another “old/recycled one” which was used in Allpahuayo plots and stopped working in 2013. It would be great to send it to you in Oxford. Maybe people of PP Systems can do something with it. Is that possible? We bought the EGM we are using in at the end of 2013 and it had been working very well before this problem. The soda lime is still green so it is ok. I think the problem is solved, hence thank you for your help.
      We have the problem of NV in partitioning respiration experiment data of Allpahuayo. If we ran the analysis (data collected in 2011) without the NV data some values are negative and we are bricking against the wall with that. We did not know that it was needed to collect the NV, so we will collect it and look what happens next.
      Thanks for the analysis.
      Best,
      Jhon

    • Thumb_sam_0693
      Over 2 years ago

      Hi Jhon - Happy New Year!

      As far as I'm aware, the high pitched sound has no other purpose other than to indicate that the chamber is flushing, hold in air. More important is that you can here the fan in the SRC whirring, indicating that it is working and indeed mixing the air inside the SRC.

      Do you have access to another EGM and SRC unit? If so, it would be nice to take repeat measurements and check for agreement. If not, do you know when the EGM was last serviced/re-calibrated? Have you troubleshooted everything else (p73 of manual) such as checking if the soda lime needs replacing? It should be replaced if 2/3's of it in the tube is turning brown. It's hard to know if what you are seeing is the machine or indeed real measurements, but if you suspect it to be faulty, you can send it back to Oxford and we can get it fully serviced by PP Systems for you.

      For the control experiment in order to calculate NV or pre-existing spatial variation, I don't think it matters too much that you are measuring this at a later date - we can assume that the spatial variation is the same now as it was then - perhaps just try to carry out the measurements in a similar time of year so that soil moisture levels are similar.

      As for the analysis, I will try to find out where this is described in detail and get back to you.

      Cheers,
      Sam

    • Thumb_photo0133
      Over 2 years ago

      Hi Sam,
      Sorry for the slow feedback.
      1. When I select the plot number, appears a message: “CHAMBER FLUSHING, HOLD IN AIR". At the same time, the chamber should sound for around 15 seconds but it had not been sounding. I just opened the SRC chamber and cleaned it inside and now it is sounding again. There was some dust in it. Something curious: this device is a “new one”. When I was working at Allpahuayo plots I had used a recycled one and never heard that sound, so I do not know if that is normal. The data looks a bit lower than usual but I am not sure if that is due to machine or it is a real measurement.
      2. In the last manual, there is a proportion of ambient (NV) or pre-existing spatial variation. This is measured before collar installation, so what should I do if I do not have this data. Shall I do the procedure beside the already-installed tubes and consider them as initial measurements?
      3. One last question is how to analyze the data of partitioning experiment using the protocol 2. The manual omits this chapter. I am going to set up these tubes and the protocol 2 looks interesting.
      Thanks
      Jhon

    • Thumb_sam_0693
      Almost 3 years ago

      Hi Jhon,

      I'm sat next to Toby and he asked me to try and answer this for you as I've been using them far more recently than he has.

      Firstly, when you say it sounds during pre-measurement, are you referring to the high pitched tone, or the sound of the fan flushing the chamber? I've never experienced not hearing the high pitched tone before, but I think so long as you can hear the fan flushing the chamber, that is the most important part of pre-measurement calibration and it should be OK and if the results look reasonable, then this is encouraging.

      Secondly, it sounds as though you are implementing partitioning experiment protocol 1 (with 4 sets of 9 tubes)? I'm not absolutely clear what your question is, but essentially, if you have removed litter before taking an initial emission measurement, you can replace the litter that was removed (same amount) from the tube, wait for some time and take another measurement, which will include the flux from the litter. Then you can remove the litter again, wait some time, and take another measurement. The difference between these two measurements is attributable to the litter.

      I hope this helps, but please tell me if it wasn't what you were asking for and I'll get back to you again.
      All best from Oxford,
      Sam

  • Fine litter fall

    Litter traps

    Dear all, the protocol assumes litter traps should be 1.50m above the ground. However, as my field assistants are barely 1.50m tall, I was thinking about decreasing it to 1.20m. Is there any reason why 1.50m was the chosen height?

    Cheers,
    Erika

    • Thumb_erika
      Almost 3 years ago

      Thanks, Sam! You are completely right!
      I guess I was just shocked to see a trap almost as tall as me!

    • Thumb_sam_0693
      Almost 3 years ago

      Hi Erika - I just checked the manual (sorry, I should have done this before) and I think you might be mis-reading it - basically, the legs need to be cut 1.5 m long, so that 0.5 m can be stuck into the ground, resulting in the litter trap tray standing at 1.0 m height. Does that make sense?
      Cheers,
      Sam

    • Thumb_erika
      Almost 3 years ago

      Hi Sam,

      Thanks a lot! Yadvinder has commented that traps used to be 1m tall and not 1.50m. Any idea if this is a typo in the manual? Toby, do you know?

    • Thumb_sam_0693
      Almost 3 years ago

      Hi Erika - just had a quick chat with Toby and we can't see any reason why you shouldn't reduce it to 1.20 m. Some of my litter traps in places with high elephant population densities are placed on the ground to prevent them being knocked over - each site has its own obstacles!
      Cheers,
      Sam